The PAR (Present, Apply, Review) Model and Lesson Structure

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Present Maximum 35%?

Learning goals are explained

  • Objectives or goals are given
  • Advanced organiser
  • Persuasive account of the relevance
    and importance of the work

New material is presented

Knowledge, reasoning, theories etc are presented to students.
Abstract ideas are illustrated with concrete examples.

Skills are demonstrated e.g. how to use a formula,
or punctuate a sentence. This stresses both process and

Learning Strategies

  • Listen to teacher talk
  • Watch a teacher or student demonstration
  • Watch a video
  • Use resources such as handouts, CDRom, Internet etc
  • Jigsaw or other cooperative learning strategies
  • Teaching without Talking strategies
  • Independent Learning
  • Teaching by asking (rather than teaching by telling) e.g. group discussion

Learning is checked in progress

  • Question and answer
  • Looking at students' work
  • Quiz, test etc

Apply Minimum 60%?

Students are given tasks that require them to apply the knowledge, theories, skills etc that have just been presented. This involves them in problem solving, making decisions, creating things such as posters or mindmaps.

Learning Strategies
When learning a practical skill
Practical task: (e.g. when learning a practical skill)

When learning cognitive skills

  • Group discussion
  • Case study
  • Exercises, questions, worksheet, essay, etc
  • Discussion to Develop an argument or answer a question etc
  • Decisions decisions game (good for learning concepts)
  • Student presentation
  • Critical evaluation of exemplars. E.g. are these sentences correctly punctuated?

Peer marking or marking exemplars Teacher should:

  • Check attention to task, behaviour etc
  • Check and correct work in progress quickly
  • Discover those who need help and provide this

Praise and encourage: effort, progress, completion etc not just high attainment

Review minimum 5%?

What was to be learned is summarised and clarified, with emphasis on the key points. Especially important at the start and finish of topics and lessons.

Learning strategies

  • Q&A: (Ask don't tell, as this checks learning)
  • Create a mindmap, poster or handout that summarised the key points.
  • Key points reiterated
  • Advanced organisers
  • Stressing the importance and relevance of the work
  • Reviews at the beginning of a lesson
  • Short task at the beginning of a lesson
  • Key points at the end of a topic
  • Reviews at the end of a lesson
  • Peer explaining of key objectives followed by check by the teacher
  • Quiz; test; etc

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